The Effect of Cross-questioning on Self-reports in a Survey of Environmental Behavior
自前國內外有關環境行為的調查多以封閉式的自陳問卷（selfreport Questionnaire）來進行測量，而且在得到答卷者的回答後多半沒有進一步檢查行為的真偽，因此是否有研究數據不實的問題一直為研究者所關切。本研究的目的即是探討有追問環境行為細節的題目與無追問的題目對環境行為問卷作答的影響。研究以200 名大學生分兩組進行施測，研究結果發現，有追問問卷比無追問問卷更能獲得謹慎的回答，減少環保行為的高報（Cover-report）。此外，雖無充分證據顯示有追問問卷的信度較高，不過，在有追問的問卷裡，研究者可以較易察覺到環保行為被高報的情形，所以有追問問卷還是比無追問的問卷來得好。因此，後續測量環境行為的研究宜針對行為的細節加入部分追問的問題，以提高測量的準確性。
Often, studies have measured people's environmental behavior with self-reports. Despite concern has been raised for the accuracy or validity of such reports, few studies have examined or tried to control the quality of their participants' self-reports. This study tested the effect of cross-questioning on people's self-report of their environmental behavior. Two hundred college students participated in a survey. Half of them were merely asked about the frequency of their behavior, and the other half were further questioned about the behavior details. Results suggested that though both groups might have over-reported or over-estimated their proenvironmental behavior, the cross-questioned group were less likely to do so. Moreover, though factor analysis failed to show that the cross-questioning questionnaire was more reliable than the no-cross-question questionnaire, the former did provide useful information to check the quality of self-reports.