The Study on the Correlation between Social Network, Sense of Community and Community Participation: Comparison of Different Communities' Experiences of Community Building
社區營造的理論表明，營造有助於重新建立人與人之間的連結，透過對社區意識的強化，達到居民參與社區公共事務，促成社區發展與民主深化的目的。然過去研究在方法上也反映兩點不足之處：其一，雖然多數研究肯定人際網絡對社區意識與社區參與有重要影響，但對社區內人際網絡的測量，大多還是以李克特量表的認知測量為主，反映的是對關係的想像，而非實際的關係；其二，社區研究的成果，大多從社區發展協會幹部的角度檢視，而非從社區居民的調查中呈現，因此多反映社區領導者對自身營造成果的評估或想像，而非代表居民實際的看法與狀況。基此，本研究透過社會網絡分析（social network analysis）的應用，以社區居民為調查對象，重新驗證前述命題。在研究設計上，本研究擇定規模相當的兩個都市型社區進行調查（有、無營造），並透過系統抽樣各抽取約300 位居民進行面訪。本研究成果如下：第一，對目前社區研究中對人際關係或社會資本測量的方法進行補充，以社會網絡分析強化相關測量的信效度；第二，以更嚴謹的研究設計了解居民社會網絡與社區意識和社區參與的關聯性；第三，驗證社區營造經驗對強化居民間的社會網絡、社區意識與社區參與程度的效果，藉以系統性檢視社區營造政策成效。
Community building not only has driven citizen participation recently but also has brought scholars of political science and public administration into the field of community research. It is important that community participation promote democratic society. Most previous studies have indicated that community building is good to re-establish interaction among inhabitants, and strengthen the sense of community. In addition, strong connections among residents can encourage residents to participate in public affairs, promote community development and deepen democracy. Nevertheless, there are two limitations of previous community network studies: first, the most widely used network measurement is through a perceptual approach to measuring ties, but the results cannot reveal actual relationships among residents in a community; second, most of the research results gather data from community development associations or chiefs of village rather than residents. Thus, this paper applies social network analysis (SNA) to explore relationships between residents to investigate the relationship between residents' social networks, sense of community and community participation. More than 300 residents were systematically sampled in two communities, one with more than ten years of experience in community building, and the other with none. This study contributes by using a more rigorous research design to demonstrate the relationship between social networks, sense of community and participation, and shows that applying social network analysis can supplement the measurement of interpersonal relationships or social capital to improve reliability and validity. The analytical results verify the positive moderating effect of community building experiences.