From Gambier to Rubber: The Change of Landscape in Johor from Mid-19th to Early 20th Century
Ph.D. Student, Department of Geography, National Taiwan Normal University & Professor, Department of Geography and Dean, College of Humanities, National Taiwan Normal University
This article discusses the historical change of landscape in Johor. The Johor landscape was once dominated by gambier and pepper plantations in the mid-19th century. It was gradually replaced by rubber plantations in the early 20th century.
This study looks into the change of landscape from three different spatial scales: global, regional, and local. The study suggests that the change of landscape was effectuated by the increase of global market demand for the commodities under colonialism and capitalism. In the region, capitalists and local rulers played leading roles in transforming the landscape to meet the market demand. In addition, the local landscape was further shaped by the administrators and workers who operated the plantations.
The Chinese and the European capitalists played important roles in the shaping of Johor’s landscape during the 19th and 20th centuries. The Chinese Kangkar and the European estate were Johor's prominent landscapes in different periods.
Key words: landscape, Johor, plantation economy, Kangkar, rubber estate
【This paper is written in Chinese. Read the Chinese Abstract.】
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