An Exploratory Analysis of Response Effects in Question Order
現代的經營管理往往依賴眾多的資訊來制訂重要決策，一般而言，資訊的來源常是藉由調查訪問來取得。因此，調查訪問的良莠對於決策的品質即有重大之影響。然而，調查訪問結果的正確性不僅受到抽樣誤差的影響，更常因問卷中題目次序（question order）的不同，而導致答案的差異。但是，問題次序所產生之訪答效應（response effects）是否放諸四海而皆準，抑或是隨著不同文化而有差異？本研究即針對問題次序對於受訪者回答之影響進行了解，並與西方類似之研究比較，以進一步了解文化差異對調查訪問之影響。結果顯示與西方研究結果一致的，特定的問題不會因其問題的次序而有任何不同的差異，而概括性的問題則會受到次序的影響。然而與西方研究結果不同的是，概括性的題目後問，則西方的受訪者會減除先前特定問題中的資訊，而國人則是加上的效應。此一結果說明國人之溝通型態應與西方有所差異，對於吾人在問卷設計及施測應能提供助益。
Contemporary business management often relies on the market information to make crucial decisions. Therefore, the validity of data from survey has great impact on the quality of the decisions. However, the outcome of survey is not only influenced by the sampling errors, but also by the question order. It is well documented in the western literature about the question order effects on the subjects' responses. Whether this response effect is generalizable to other cultures has not gained sufficient attention in the literature. This study took an initial step to test the question order effect on the Taiwanese respondents' answers. The results indicated that consistent with the western research, the specific question was free from its placement but the general question was affected by the question sequence. Nevertheless, the direction of the response effect was just opposite. Taiwanese respondents tend to include the specific information when answering a following general question, while the western respondents tend to subtract it. The differences in the response pattern could be attributed to the distinct communication style between cultures. The implication derived from this research could be beneficial to the questionnaire and survey implementation.