Sexual Difference on Corruption Tolerance
Using ISSP 2009, this study finds that, compared to men, women are more intolerant toward corruption. This conclusion holds even after controlling for work status, occupation, and income. Respondents with bad current work status (unemployment), low occupational status, and low income tend to be more tolerant of corruption, particularly for men. Although unemployment makes women more tolerant of corruption, it makes men much more tolerant of corruption. The difference in the degree of tolerance toward corruption between the highest and the lowest occupational statuses is greater for men than for women. Income is irrelevant to how women perceive the relation between success and corruption, but low income leads men to believe that to succeed one must be corrupt. Depression literature shows that the main sources of men's depression are related to achievement and employment, while our study demonstrates that men with low achievement are more likely to perceive success with a sour-grapes view. Enhancing women's working status does not change their degree of tolerance toward corruption. Therefore, no matter whether the tolerance difference between the sexes is from nature or nurture, increasing women's participation in politics and law enforcement is expected to reduce corruption.