On Political Unity of a Pluralist Society: A Perspective from the Systemic Approach to Deliberative Democracy
當代多元價值的社會面臨政治統合問題，意即人們基於不同信 念、價值觀和道德觀，對公共政策產生分歧意見，那麼應該如何得出 用來規範所有人、合理可接受的政策決議？對此，審議民主的系統取 向可提供優於先前研究取向的回答。系統取向主張必須從討論公共議 題的各種機構和場域以及它們的互動，來看待審議發揮的作用。本文 的目的是要探討審議民主的系統取向如何從審議系統的觀點，促成多 元社會的政治統合。筆者首先分析審議的系統包含哪些構成部分、它 們的整體架構、互動關係及發揮的審議功能。而後探討審議系統的觀 點得以促成政治統合的三個關鍵論點：奠基於正當性而非共識的統合 觀、非審議的行動可以產生審議的結果、審議的分工。
Contemporary pluralist societies are faced with the problem of political unity, which means that people disagree on public policies or laws based on divergent beliefs, values and moral conceptions. In such a context, how is it possible to arrive at a reasonably acceptable policy decision that regulates everyone? The systemic approach to deliberative democracy can provide an answer that is superior to those resulting from previous research approaches. The systemic approach advocates that the role of deliberation must be understood from the various institutions and sites that discuss public issues, as well as from the interactions among these components. The aim of this paper is to explore how the systemic approach to deliberative democracy promotes political unity based on the conception of deliberative systems. I first analyze which components are included in a deliberative system, the entire structure of a system, the interactions among its components, and the deliberative functions realized by it. Then, I explore three key points that enable the conception of deliberative systems to promote political unity: conception of unity that is based on legitimacy rather than consensus, the fact that non-deliberative actions may lead to deliberative results, and the division of the labor of deliberation.