The Development of Hakka Communities in Aceh, Indonesia: Community Relations, Social Organizations and Transnational Connections
研究論文 Research Paper
This article attempts to understand the formation of Hakka communities in Aceh, Indonesia. It is divided into four parts. The first part focuses on the development of Hakka studies in Indonesia, and the characteristics, regional concerns, and relatively neglected issues and perspectives of the contemporary literature. The second part discusses the appearance of Hakka and other Chinese communities in Aceh and their life experiences in different historical periods. In the third part, the focuses are on the Hakka and other Chinese communities in Banda Aceh and Bireuen. By focusing on the aspects of living space, social relations and social organizations, this part tries to understand the various connections (locally, regionally and internationally) the Hakka and other Chinese communities have developed with different ‘others,’ and how these networks have helped to shape the identity of being Hakka, being Chinese, and being a part of Aceh and Indonesian societies today. The article concludes by proposing the three-stages of development of Hakka identity in Aceh. It is found that the development of Hakka identity is in fact a process of continuous interactions between the Hakka and the various surrounding people. In this process, what it means to be Hakka and be Chinese in Aceh, and how these identities are related to each other, have been constantly modified, redefined, and reproduced, in terms of different personal experiences and immediate social contexts.